Archives US: histoire et documents

Documents d'archives fondateurs des Etats-Unis, photos de l'Amérique d'autrefois, une mine d'information pour les passionnés d'histoire.

Re: Archives US: histoire et documents

Messagepar USA-Decouverte » 13 Avr 2011, 11:59

La résolution 301 du Sénat, censurant le Sénateur McCarthy (1954)

Le 2 décembre 1954, le Sénat des Etats-Unis vote la censure du Sénateur Républicain du Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy, qui avait conduit devant le Congrés la politique de recherche des Américains suspectés de communisme, principalement parmi les employés de l'administration fédérale.

En février 1950, au coeur de la Guerre froide, McCarthy prétendait avoir une liste de 205 noms de suspects. Mais ses accusations n'étaient étayées que de fort maigres preuves.

La Censure décrit le comportement de McCarthy comme contraire aux "traditions sénatoriales".

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Resolved, That the Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, failed to cooperate with the Subcommittee on Privileges and Elections of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration in clearing up matters referred to that subcommittee which concerned his conduct as a Senator and affected the honor of the Senate and, instead, repeatedly abused the subcommittee and its members who were trying to carry out assigned duties, thereby obstructing the constitutional processes of the Senate, and that this conduct of the Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, is contrary to senatorial traditions and is hereby condemned.


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Re: Archives US: histoire et documents

Messagepar USA-Decouverte » 21 Avr 2011, 11:58

L'arrêt Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Une décision historique de la Cour Suprême établissant que la séparation des Noirs et des Blancs au sein du système scolaire est contraire à la Constitution des Etats-Unis.

Cet arrêt met ainsi un terme au principe de "Separate but equal" (Séparés mais égaux) né d'une précédente décision de la Cour, plus d'un demi siècle plus tôt, l'arrêt Plessy v. Ferguson en 1896.

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Segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race, pursuant to state laws permitting or requiring such segregation, denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment -- even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors of white and Negro schools may be equal.



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Un document vidéo traitant de l'arrêt Brown v. Board of Education

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Re: Archives US: histoire et documents

Messagepar USA-Decouverte » 02 Mai 2011, 07:15

Plan Marshall (1948)

Le 3 Avril 1948, le Président Truman signe le Economic Recovery Act of 1948, connu sous le non de Plan Marshall, du nom su secrétaire d'Etat George Marshall qui, en 1947, avait proposé que les Etats-Unis apportent une assistance économique à l'Europe d'après-guerre.

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I need not tell you gentlemen that the world situation is very serious. That must be apparent to all intelligent people. I think one difficulty is that the problem is one of such enormous complexity that the very mass of facts presented to the public by press and radio make it exceedingly difficult for the man in the street to reach a clear appraisement of the situation. Furthermore, the people of this country are distant from the troubled areas of the earth and it is hard for them to comprehend the plight and consequent reaction of the long-suffering peoples, and the effect of those reactions on their governments in connection with our efforts to promote peace in the world.

In considering the requirements for the rehabilitation of Europe the physical loss of life, the visible destruction of cities, factories, mines, and railroads was correctly estimated, but it has become obvious during recent months that this visible destruction was probably less serious than the dislocation of the entire fabric of European economy. For the past 10 years conditions have been highly abnormal. The feverish maintenance of the war effort engulfed all aspects of national economics. Machinery has fallen into disrepair or is entirely obsolete. Under the arbitrary and destructive Nazi rule, virtually every possible enterprise was geared into the German war machine. Long-standing commercial ties, private institutions, banks, insurance companies and shipping companies disappeared, through the loss of capital, absorption through nationalization or by simple destruction. In many countries, confidence in the local currency has been severely shaken. The breakdown of the business structure of Europe during the war was complete. Recovery has been seriously retarded by the fact that 2 years after the close of hostilities a peace settlement with Germany and Austria has not been agreed upon. But even given a more prompt solution of these difficult problems, the rehabilitation of the economic structure of Europe quite evidently will require a much longer time and greater effort than had been foreseen.



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